For Immediate Release
August 5, 1994
Fact Sheet - Statement on National Space Transportation Policy
This policy will be implemented within the overall resource and policy guidance provided by the President.
This policy shall be implemented as follows:
(a) ELV improvements and evolution plans will be implemented in cooperation with the Intelligence
Community, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Departments of Transportation
and Commerce, taking into account, as appropriate, the needs of the commercial space launch sector.
(b) The Department of Defense will maintain the Titan IV launch system until a replacement is available.
(a) The Space Shuttle will be used only for missions that require human presence or other unique
Shuttle capabilities, or where use of the Shuttle is determined to be important for national security, foreign
policy or other compelling purposes.
(b) The National Aeronautics and Space Administration will maintain the Space Shuttle system until a
replacement is available.
(c) As future development of a new reusable launch system is anticipated, procurement of additional
Space Shuttle orbiters is not planned at this time.
(a) The objective of NASA's technology development and demonstration effort is to support government and private sector
decisions by the end of this decade on development of an operational next-generation reusable launch
(b) Research shall be focused on technologies to support a decision no later than December 1996 to
proceed with a sub-scale flight demonstration which would prove the concept of single-stage-to-orbit.
(c) Technology development and demonstration, including operational concepts, will be implemented
in cooperation with related activities in the Department of Defense.
(d) It is envisioned that the private sector could have a significant role in managing the development
and operation of a new reusable space transportation system. In anticipation of this role, NASA shall
actively involve the private sector in planning and evaluating its launch technology activities.
(a) The Departments of Transportation and Commerce will be responsible for identifying and promoting
innovative types of arrangements between the U.S. Government and the private sector, as well as State
and local governments, that may be used to implement applicable portions of this policy.
(b) The Department of Transportation will license, facilitate, and promote commercial launch
operations as set forth in the Commercial Space Launch Act, as amended, and Executive Order 12465.
he Department of Transportation will coordinate with the Department of Commerce where appropriate.
(c) U.S. Government agencies shall purchase commercially available U.S. space transportation
products and services to the fullest extent feasible that meet mission requirements and shall not conduct
activities with commercial applications that preclude or deter commercial space activities, except for
national security or public safety reasons.
(d) The U.S. Government will provide for the timely transfer to the private sector of unclassified
Government-developed space transportation technologies in such a manner as to protect their commercial
(e) The U.S. Government will make all reasonable efforts to provide stable and predictable access to
appropriate space transportation-related hardware, facilities, and services; these will be on a reimbursable
basis. The U.S. Government reserves the right to use such facilities and services on a priority basis to
meet national security and critical civil sector mission requirements.
(f) U.S. Government agencies shall work with the U.S. commercial space sector to promote the
establishment of technical standards for commercial space products and services.
(a) Involve the private sector in the design and development of space transportation capabilities and
encourage private sector financing, as appropriate.
(b) Emphasize procurement strategies that are based on the use of commercial U.S. space
transportation products and services.
(c) Provide for private sector retention of technical data rights, limited only to the extent necessary to
meet government needs.
(d) Encourage private sector and State and local government investment and participation in the
development and improvement of U.S. launch systems and infrastructure.
(a) International space launch trade agreements in which the U.S. is a party must allow for effective
means of enforcement. The range of options available to the U.S. must be sufficient to deter and, if
necessary, respond to non-compliance and provide effective relief to the U.S. commercial space launch
industry. Agreements must not constrain the ability of the United States to take any action consistent
with U.S. laws and regulations.
(b) International space launch trade agreements in which the U.S. is a party must be in conformity
with U.S. obligations under arms control agreements, U.S. nonproliferation policies, U.S. technology
transfer policies, and U.S. policies regarding observance of the Guidelines and Annex of the Missile
Technology Control Regime (MTCR).
(a) This policy does not apply to use of foreign launch vehicles on a no-exchange-of-funds basis to
support the following: flight of scientific instruments on foreign spacecraft, international scientific
programs, or other cooperative government-to-government programs. Such use will be subject to
interagency coordination procedures.
Mindful of the policy's guidance that U.S. Government agencies shall purchase commercially available U.S.
space transportation products and services to the fullest extent feasible, use of excess ballistic missile
assets may be permitted for launching payloads into orbit when the following conditions are met:
(a) The payload supports the sponsoring agency's mission.
(b) The use of excess ballistic missile assets is consistent with international obligations, including the
MTCR guidelines and the START agreements.
(c) The sponsoring agency must certify the use of excess ballistic missile assets results in a cost
savings to the U.S. Government relative to the use of available commercial launch services that would
also meet mission requirements, including performance, schedule, and risk.
(a) The Secretaries of Defense, Commerce, Transportation, and the Administrator of the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration, with appropriate input from the Director of Central Intelligence, will
provide a report that will include a common set of requirements and a coordinated technology plan that
addresses the needs of the national security, civilian, and commercial space launch sectors.
(b) The Secretary of Defense, with the support of other agencies as required, will provide an
implementation plan that includes schedule and funding for improvement and evolution of the current
U.S. ELV fleet.
(c) The Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, with the support of other
agencies as required, will provide an implementation plan that includes schedule and funding for
improvements of the Space Shuttle system and technology development and demonstration for next
generation reusable space transportation systems.
(d) The Secretaries of Transportation and Commerce, with the support of other agencies as required
and U.S. industry, will provide an implementation plan that will focus on measures to foster an internationally
competitive U.S. launch capability. In addition, the Secretaries will provide recommendations to the
Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration that promote the full
involvement of thecommercial sector in the NASA and DoD plans.